New space telescope could spot potentially hazardous asteroids heading for Earth

The Near-Earth Object Surveyor space telescope, or NEO Surveyor, has been approved by NASA to move forward to the design phase. The 20-foot-long (6-meter-long) infrared telescope would bolster planetary defense by helping astronomers find asteroids and comets that come within 30 million miles (48 million kilometers) of Earth’s orbit.

The mission’s launch is currently scheduled for the first half of 2026.

“NEO Surveyor will have the capability to rapidly accelerate the rate at which NASA is able to discover asteroids and comets that could pose a hazard to the Earth, and it is being designed to discover 90 percent of asteroids 140 meters (459 feet) in size or larger within a decade of being launched,” said Mike Kelley, NEO Surveyor program scientist at NASA Headquarters, in a statement.

In 2010, NASA completed its goal of discovering 90% of all near-Earth objects larger than 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) in size. The agency was then directed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Act of 2005 to find 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters (459 feet).

To date, NASA has found 40% of the objects within this range.

“Each night, astronomers across the globe diligently use ground-based optical telescopes to discover new NEOs, characterize their shape and size, and confirm they do not pose a threat to us,” said Kelly Fast, program manager for NASA’s NEO Observations Program, in a statement.

“Those telescopes are only able to look for NEOs in the night sky. NEO Surveyor would allow observations to continue day and night, specifically targeting regions where NEOs that could pose a hazard might be found and accelerating the progress toward the Congressional goal.”

This illustration depicts NEO Surveyor, a new mission that could discover most of the potentially hazardous asteroids that are near Earth.

The ability to discover and characterize potentially hazardous NEOs also allows astronomers to track these objects. Currently, there are no known NEO impact threats to Earth for the next century. However, unknown NEOs can lead to unpredicted impacts, like the Chelyabinsk event in Russia.

In 2013, an asteroid entered Earth’s atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia. It exploded in the air, releasing 20 to 30 times more energy than that of the first atomic bombs, generating brightness greater than the sun, exuding heat, damaging more than 7,000 buildings and injuring more than 1,000 people. The shock wave broke windows 58 miles away. It went undetected because the asteroid came from the same direction and path as the sun.

These meteorites landed on Earth after a 22-million-year voyage

The NEO Surveyor will use infrared sensors that can help astronomers find these objects — even ones that may approach Earth during the day from the direction of the sun. This isn’t something that’s possible using ground-based observatories.

“By searching for NEOs closer to the direction of the Sun, NEO Surveyor would help astronomers discover impact hazards that could approach Earth from the daytime sky,” said Amy Mainzer, principal investigator for NEO Surveyor at the University of Arizona and professor in the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, in a statement.

“We think there are about 25,000 NEOs large enough to wipe out an area like Southern California,” Mainzer said. “Once they get bigger than about 450 feet (137 meters) in diameter, they can cause…

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